The NICCS Portal’s cybersecurity lexicon is intended to serve the cybersecurity communities of practice and interest for both the public and private sectors. No one with even a little experience of geometry will dispute that this science is entirely the opposite of what is said about it in the accounts of its practitioners… They give ridiculous accounts of it, though they can’t help it, for they speak like practical men, and all their accounts refer to doing things.
To claim, with Skolimowski and Simon, that technology is about what is to be or what ought to be rather than what is may serve to distinguish it from science but will hardly make it understandable why so much philosophical reflection on technology has taken the form of socio-cultural critique.
We often do not know the probability that something might go wrong, and sometimes we even do not know, or at least not fully, what might go wrong and what possible negative consequences may be. To deal with this, some authors have proposed to conceive of the introduction of new technology in society as a social experiment and have urged to think about the conditions under which such experiments are morally acceptable (Martin and Schinzinger 2005, Van de Poel 2009b).
Karl Marx did not condemn the steam engine or the spinning mill for the vices of the bourgeois mode of production; he believed that ongoing technological innovation were necessary steps toward the more blissful stages of socialism and communism of the future (see Bimber (1990) for a recent discussion of different views on the role of technology in Marx’s theory of historical development).
More recently, modern works of science fiction, such as those by Philip K. Dick and William Gibson, and films (e.g. Blade Runner, Ghost in the Shell) project highly ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technology’s impact on human society and identity.